To download a demo version of Cell-Design, click here

In Brief

Cell-Design is a comprehensive software package for computer-aided design of electrochemical cells. The software provides complete simulation of electrochemical cells with user specified geometry, chemistry, and operating conditions. The software is specifically designed for personal computers and workstations running under Windows 95, 98, NT, 2000 and XP.

Cell-Design is versatile and user-friendly. Its extensive graphics, menu structure and accompanying database ease the introduction of complex, arbitrarily specified cells and operating conditions and the analysis of the results.

Cell-Design provides results within seconds, thus saving time, labor, and money. The software introduces engineering precision and predictability to electrochemical process design and provides even inexperienced users with unique CAD/CAE capability. The software is accurate, fast and robust. Cell-Design has been extensively verified and field-tested at numerous industrial installations. Large and small companies in the plating, electrolytic, electronics, automotive, aerospace and defense industries are using it worldwide.

Cell-Design is structured in modular form that can be customized according to the customer's needs. Cell-Design is continuously updated and new advanced features are periodically added. For more in-depth information about Cell-Design, scroll down.

 

 

Cell-Design Capabilities:

Cell-Design Provides:

  • Current and potential distributions (density and vector maps, local numerical values at any points and tabulated results)  

  • Deposit thickness distribution (displayed graphically and numerically)

  • Overpotentials (polarization) along electrodes

  • Ohmic loss, cell resistance and power dissipation

  • Total current (and corresponding deposit weight) for each electrode

  • Concentration profiles (in micro-scale modeling)

  • Deposit growth and dissolution (as a function of time and position)

  • Complete solution of the flow distribution – laminar and turbulent (flow module req.)

  • Alloy composition as a function of position and deposition time

  • Current efficiency/gas evolution as a function of position

  • Indication of rough deposits (patent pending)

Results are provided as graphical displays and detailed numerical tables. These can be plotted, printed or stored for later recall. Output data can also be directly transferred to other Windows programs including Microsoft 'Word', 'Excel', and 'Powerpoint'.

Special Output and Analysis Features: 

  • On-screen, Virtual Multimeter’ displays dynamically local values of current density, voltage, and local concentrations (in micro-scale analysis), at any point within the cell

  • Scalable graphics output and detailed numerical tables with direct linkage to other Windows based programs e.g. ‘Excel’

  • Comprehensive ‘Report Generator‘ stores (at a click of the mouse) all computation results in one, easily accessible file

  • ‘Results Tracker’ superimposes new computation results on top of previous ones for rapid identification of optimal conditions and improvements

  • Graphical indication of rough deposits.

  • High resolution analysis is available using a combination of ‘zoom view’ (for magnified viewing and drawing of small details) ‘fragment cell generation’ (for automatic partitioning of a ‘fragmented’ cell and analyzing it at high resolution) and ‘micro-scale’ analysis (for accurate analysis of the micro-scale).

  • Database for common systems (linked interactively to the program; user customizable)

  • Expert system for extracting properties data required for simulation from deposit thickness or from current density measured in any arbitrary cell (patent pending)

 

Cell-Design Can Analyze:

  • Complex cells (2-D and axi-symmetric) consisting of straight and arbitrarily curved boundaries. The cells may include numerous (hundreds) electrodes and boundary segments.

  • Shields, thieves, and separated regions

  • Moving boundaries for simulating deposit growth and dissolution

  • Fluid-flow

  • Detailed distributions of current, deposit thickness, potential and concentrations near micro-scale features using a combination of ‘zoom view’ (for magnified viewing and drawing of small details) 'fragment cell generation' (for automatic generation of a 'fragmented' cell and analyzing it at high resolution) and 'micro-scale' analysis (accurate analysis of the micro-scale).

Special Modeling Capabilities:

  • Fluid-flow: agitation, bubble-induced convection (air-sparging), translating and/or rotating electrodes, fully integrated with the electrochemical simulator

  • Multiple electrode reactions (alloys plating, gas co-evolution)

  • Corrosion and cathodic protection

  • Film-covered electrodes (passivation, anodizing)

  • Resistive deposit, including ‘barrier’ layer (anodizing)

  • Battery/fuel-cell simulation - under load

  • Bi-polar & floating electrodes (including shunt currents)

  • Resistive electrodes (‘Terminal Effect’) with arbitrary contact (current feed) points on 1-D and 2-D electrodes

  • Reel-to-reel (continuous strip) plating

  • ‘Moving boundaries’ for simulating electroforming, electro-etching and electrochemical machining (EC M )

  • Pulse and periodic reverse plating (including deposit buildup)

  • Variable kinetics along electrodes

  • Indication of likelihood of rough deposits

  • Specification of either the voltage or the applied current

  • Simulation of a Potentiostat, including reference electrodes

  • Accounting for dispersed reactive areas on electrodes.

Input:

Geometry

Any user-specified two-dimensional cross-section (including three dimensional axi-symmetric cells) can be analyzed. The software accommodates slanted and arbitrarily curved electrodes and cell boundaries, and precisely handles sharp or round corners. The cell is drawn on the screen interactively as its geometry is entered by either:

  • mouse

  • numerical coordinate values

  • ASCII files or direct import from AutoCad ( Using optional module)

  • Specified by any math function

The cell geometry (including the operating parameters) can be stored for later recall.

The geometry can be modified (edited) by:

  • Moving, adding, or eliminating boundary points.

  • Using the optional ‘Geometry Editor’, entire cell features can be copied, moved, and stretched, rotated or deleted.

  • A user-customizable ‘Shapes Library’ assists in introducing common and recurring geometry features.

Coordinates of any boundary point and its properties can be directly viewed and precisely adjusted by just clicking on the point

 

Chemical and Physical Properties

The process properties can either be imported from a database that is linked to the program or entered by the user. The database contains common chemistries and can be user-customized and expanded.

When data is not available, the properties can be provided by either:

  • The ‘L-Cell’ (available at discount to Cell-Design users), which provides the kinetics parameters and the conductivity through one fast and fully automated experiment. Click Here to read more.

  • Cell-Design’s‘ Expert System’, automatically derives the properties from a deposit thickness measurement in nearly any cell (including production cells). The ‘Expert System’ bypasses the need for modeling the flow or additives interactions, and avoids the uncertainties associated with such modeling.

Electrode kinetics

  • Automatically imported from the database, the ‘L-Cell’, or the ‘expert system’.

  • Specified in terms of the Butler-Volmer parameters

  • Specified in terms of a polynomial function

  • Determined by ‘Cell-Design’ from discrete numerical or tabulated polarization data (direct import from ‘Excel’ is provided)

Electrode kinetics may be constant for an electrode or may be specified to vary continuously (or abruptly) with position (essential for e.g., modeling 'superfil'). 

Mass transport parameters

  • Specified by the user in terms of limiting current or boundary layer thickness (can vary along the electrode).

  • Automatically determined from correlations for common flow configurations

  • Directly provided by the fluid-flow module (option FFW)

 

The Electrical conditions (state) of each electrode must be provided by specifying either its: 

  • Voltage or,

  • Total current

Simulation Modes:

In addition to the comprehensive model (‘tertiary distribution’), accounting simultaneously for all mechanisms, common approximations can be specified:

  • Primary distribution (electrolyte ohmic resistance is dominant)

  • Secondary distribution (ohmic and and reaction kinetics assumed significant, but mass transport neglected)

  • Mass transport control (ohmic and kinetics resistances are negligible)

  • Micro-scale simulation accounting for diffusion, kinetics and ohmic limitations near small-scale features.

  • Fluid-flow modeling

  • Fragment cell computations provide high-resolution analysis of any user-defined region within the cell.

Accurate and detailed results are typically obtained within minutes. Process conditions and cell configuration can be easily modified and re-run for optimization studies.

Convenience Features

Cell-Design’s use requires no computer competence, nor does it assume extensive electrochemical expertise. The learning curve is steep and within a few hours all licensees use the software proficiently. The software is robust and interactive. It prompts the user for input or imports the data directly from the database. Additional helpful features include:

  • Comprehensive and interactive, mouse-based geometry entry and editing capability:

  • Move, add and delete boundary points

  • Move, add, delete, rotate, and duplicate complete cell features

  • Shapes library (user customizable)

  • Undo and Redo option

  • Scalable grid size and rulers

  • Zoom view (essentially infinite magnification) for precise drawing of small features and magnified display of the results

  • Direct link to AutoCad for instantaneous geometry input and output

  • ‘Cue-cards’ suggesting following action are interactively displayed

  • A 'Wizard' provides step by step guidance and prompts for the inexperienced user.

  • Report generator for storing all results at a push of a button.

  • 'Results tracker' highlights graphically variations in results due to changing the operating conditions or cell configuration.

  • Extensive, clearly written documentation & tutorials

  • On-line instructions & help

  • Telephone, fax, and e-mail assistance.

Benefits of Using Cell-Design:

Money Savings

  • Optimize cell designs and operating conditions for high quality product

  • Save materials costs and eliminate scrap by closely meeting specifications

  • Avoid costly design mistakes by replacing guess-work with predictive design and scale-up

Time Savings

  • Fast simulations (minutes) replace time-consuming "trial and error" experiments

  • Scan rapidly broad range of operation & design parameters

  • Reduce set-up time and time-to-production

Productivity and Quality

  • Optimized design offers quality product with tight tolerances .

  • Cell-Design’s quantitative computations and graphic output provide invaluable marketing tool for "selling" designs and products to customers and management.

  • Interpret with confidence experiments, computing rather than guessing the effect of the various parameters.

  • Improve process control by determining sensitivity to operating and design parameters; establish process windows.

Cell-Design will provide you with capabilities exceeding those that can be gained by adding an expert, super-fast and tireless electrochemical engineer to your team.

Minutes of computer simulation will save weeks of costly, and often less accurate, experimental work

Sample Applications

Plating, Electroforming

  • Prediction of deposit thickness distribution.

  • Rack design.

  • Position and shape of thieves and shields.

  • Deposit texture, range for smooth plating.

  • Optimizing operating parameters.

  • Required agitation level.

  • Predicting the influence of leveling agents.

  • Selective plating: cell and mask design.

  • Pattern, through-hole and via, bumps, and interconnect process design and optimization.

Electrowinning and Refining, Electrolysis, Electrosynthesis

  • Effects of electrode spacing, dimensions and cell configuration.

  • Power requirements for various cell designs

  • Avoidance of powder formation and dendritic growth.

  • Conditions for maximal current efficiency and cell utilization .

  • Terminal effects in resistive electrodes.

Batteries and Fuel Cells

  • Shunt currents in bi-polar electrodes.

  • Macroscopic current and potential distributions.

  • Optimize shapes, sizes and operating conditions.

  • Effects of pore size and pore distribution.

Electropolishing and Anodizing

  • Determination of material removal/anodizing rates.

  • Film Build-up: rates and distribution .

Corrosion and cathodic protection

  • Quantitative evaluation and design of cathodic protection systems

  • Evaluation of corrosion rates in non-uniformly accessible systems.

Electrochemical Machining

  • Design of cathode tools through simulation.

  • Simulate feed rate, shape of cut.

R/D, Engineering Groups

  • Design of experimental and production cells

  • Accurate, quantitative interpretation of experimental data.

  • Computer simulations are faster and less costly than experimentation.

  • Scale-up and scale-down with confidence.

  • Selection of optimal designs and operating conditions.

  • Determine system sensitivity to various parameters.

Computation Time

Cell-Design’s computations typically require only a few minutes on Pentium class computers. Exact times depend on the specified resolution, error tolerance, cell complexity, process parameters and the computer. Resolution and accuracy may be adjusted to ‘draft’, ‘proof’ or ‘presentation’ quality to accommodate needs. The user may interrupt the computations at any instant.

Resolution

Cell complexity and resolution are only limited by the time required for analysis and the available memory . Since it is impractical to model cells on the macroscopic scale (e.g. cm or inches) and within the same computation resolve features on the microscopic scale (e.g. sub mm or mils), it is prudent to carry the modeling twice: first on the larger scale and then apply the results to a second simulation of a smaller section. The automatic fragment cell generation capability (option ZCW) eliminates this inconvenience by automatically magnifying and re-analyzing any arbitrary cell segment

Accuracy

Cell-Design has been extensively tested in modeling cells for which analytical solutions are available and by thorough experimental programs in industry. Excellent agreement has always been noted. Whenever computations are stopped, the software reports the error tolerance achieved and the mismatch between the total anodic and cathodic current. The user may choose to refine the computations for higher accuracy.

Support

Technical Support

Various support levels are available ranging from phone consultations to on-site installation or training. The licensing fee includes a first year maintenance (with optional renewal) that covers phone consultations, free software upgrades and discounted software enhancements. A fully documented manual, including tutorials, is provided. Our experience indicates that most users do not require assistance beyond that available in the manual and an occasional phone call. However, if additional help is requested, it is available free of charge during the first year by phone, fax, or e-mail, or at L-Chem’s facilities in Cleveland, OH. Training or assistance at the user’s location, can be arranged (for a fee).

Upgrades, Enhancements & Maintenance

Upgrades and enhancements are being continuously released. These become available to Cell-Design licensees. If the maintenance contract is maintained, no fee is charged for software upgrades and a reduced fee is charged for enhancements. All reported critical deficiencies are immediately corrected.

Hardware and Platform Requirements

COMPUTER/OPERATING SYSTEM

Any computer running Windows 95, 98, NT, 2000, or XP

MEMORY

16 MB RAM (64 MB or more recommended)

STORAGE

40 MB free disk space

DISPLAY (MONITOR)

800x600 resolution (1024x768 or higher recommended)

PRINTER / PLOTTER

All windows i/o devices are supported

Cell-Design's Modular Structure

Cell-Design is provided in a modular form enabling users to custom-fit the software to their specific applications. The software package must include the base program CDW. Optional modules can be added to the base program for modeling special features or for providing enhanced capabilities. The main features of the base program and the optional modules are described below.

A. BASE PROGRAMS:

CDW

Runs under Windows 95, 98, Me, 2000, NT, and XP. Models 2-D cross-sections of cells with arbitrary (straight or curved) boundaries and electrodes. Provides convenient geometry input and editing with on-screen interactive display of the drawn geometry. The cell and electrodes are drawn by a mouse, or by coordinate specification. Curved boundaries are defined by entering boundary points (that are automatically interpolated), by circular arcs, or through the specification of math functions.

User interface includes Windows-based menu structure and dialog boxes, ‘undo’ and ‘redo’ functions, and interactive on-screen cue cards. A ‘wizard’ automates the parameters input. The user can specify the units used for cell drawing, current density and deposit thickness, and the number of displayed significant digits. User-customizable database (see below, option DBW) provides internally the data required for the computations. Kinetics parameters are either imported automatically from the database, extracted from polarization data or entered by specifying Butler–Volmer parameters. Mass transport is specified in terms of either: (i) limiting currents, (ii) boundary layer thickness, or (iii) automatically provided for common flow configurations (e.g. flow past flat plates, tubular or rotating electrodes). Electrodes (mono-polar or bi-polar with shunt currents) are specified in terms of their voltage.

Fully integrated output includes extensive graphical and tabulated display of current density and deposit thickness along electrodes, numerical display of electrode polarization, maps displaying equi-potential lines, color zoned potential regions, and current density vectors. A ‘virtual multimeter’ displays the current density and potential at any cell location. Total current, and current and deposit thickness non-uniformity, are computed for each electrode. The output can be stored as a comprehensive report (option RPW, ‘Report Generator’) or transferred to Windows’ clipboard for copying to other Windows applications. A ‘Results Tracker’ (option RTW), is provided.

Options DBW (Database), KIW (Kinetics parameters from polarization data), RPW (Report Generator) and RTW (Results Tracker) are currently bundled with the base program (CDW) at no extra cost.

B. ADD-ON OPTIONS:

GEW

Advanced geometry editing module provides convenient modification of the cell by precisely moving and placing cell components and boundaries. Using the mouse, boundary points and cell segments can be added, moved, or deleted, and complete cell features can be moved, rotated, flipped, stretched, shrunk, copied and pasted. A user customizable shapes library (e.g. for storing and pasting common features) is included. The geometry editor also allows importing ASCII text files specifying cell coordinates.

ZVW

Zoom view serves as a ‘magnifying glass’ and provides essentially unlimited zooming capability of any selected region within the cell. Cell features can be drawn and edited with high precision within the zoomed window. Although the small features edited, may not be clearly visible at the normal magnification, the software will account for them.

ZCW

Zoom computations (in a ‘fragment’ cell section). Allows separate computations within any arbitrarily selected region of the cell. Typical use is for providing high-resolution computations in a small, zoomed-in, region that is located within a larger cell. The user indicates (graphically) the region within which the high-resolution computations are to be performed and the software introduces automatically the appropriate boundary conditions and analyzes the region. (Requires option ZVW).

RPW

Report Generator. Stores all of Cell-Design’s output (all graphical and numerical computations results) in a report that can later be conveniently accessed. (RPW is currently bundled with the base program, CDW, at no additional cost).

RTW

Results Tracker . Tracks graphically all changes in the current distribution and the deposit profile as a function of (varying) operating conditions or modifications in the cell configuration. The new distributions are superimposed on top of the previous ones for easy comparison, leading to rapid identification of optimized conditions . (RTW is currently bundled with the base program, CDW, at no additional cost).

DBW

A chemistry and physical property database that is directly linked to the modeling software. Upon selecting a chemistry, all the properties are automatically entered into the appropriate locations in the program. The database is populated by a number of commonly used chemistries. If the required chemistry has not been included in the database, the user can update the database. (DBW is currently included with the base module (CDW) at no extra cost)

KIW

Determines kinetics parameters from polarization data . Polarization data (overpotential vs. current density) is entered point-by-point, or as a pasted ‘Excel’ table. The kinetics parameters are automatically stored in the database and/or applied in the computations. (KIW is currently included with the base module (CDW) at no additional cost)

XPW

Expert system for property extraction (patent pending). Enables Cell-Design to generate complete kinetics and select transport properties from deposit thickness or current distribution data generated in one experiment in nearly any arbitrary cell (including production cells). The cell configuration and the data (deposit thickness or current distribution on one or more electrodes) are entered and the ‘expert system’ then computes the ‘optimized’ kinetics parameters for the data, and stores them in Cell-Design’s database. These can be used for modeling different operating conditions or different cell configurations. Data generated by XPW accurately accounts for additives, transport (flow) effects, and cell configuration. It represents the specific system far better than data obtained from literature, by analysis, or by experiments in a model system. Requirements for quantitative modeling of additive effects, flow, and complex electrode reactions are by-passed.

VKW

Variable Kinetics . Simulates variable kinetics along electrodes. Different kinetics may be specified at any number of points along a single electrode and the kinetics parameters may then be interpolated. Useful for accounting for variable additives adsorption, and temperature or concentration variations. Essential for modeling via and trench filling in semiconductor interconnects (‘bottom-up’ or ‘superfill’).

 
 
A time step series showing the progression of a ‘super-fill’ of a 2.5 micron trench through a ‘bottom-up’ fill process. Cell-Design’s variable kinetics module was used to simulate the process.
       

TIW

Total current module. Allows the specification of total current instead of voltage on any given electrode. Eliminates ‘trial and error’ in searching for the correct voltage to produce the desired current. May also be used for modeling cells with floating (no contact to current feed) electrodes. At least one voltage (e.g. one grounded electrode) must be specified.

AXW

Modeling cells that are axi-symmetric bodies of revolution (3-Dimensional bodies with rotational symmetry). Axis of rotation and the shape of the rotating body can be arbitrarily specified. Models cylindrical, spherical, conical, annular cells, disk electrodes, or any other cell that can be described by rotating an arbitrarily shaped curve.

MBW

Provides moving boundaries capability to simulate deposit growth or dissolution. Accurately models the deposit thickness build-up on a plated part or the evolving shape of a dissolving one. Essential for modeling deposition (or dissolution) on small features where the deposit changes the part geometry, i.e., the deposit thickness is of similar magnitude to the part features. Required for modeling electroforming, electrodissolution, and electrochemical machining (EC M). Shows the deposit growth or dissolution as function of time, applying user-specified time steps. Provides graphical and numerical display showing the deposit growth with the time steps.

FFW

A complete fluid-flow modeling program with graphical and tabulated presentation of the flow-field. Fully integrated with the electrochemical simulator, providing the flow effects on the electrochemical process. Translational flow in arbitrary 2-D cross-sections and rotational flow in axi-symmetric cells (with rotating electrodes) can be modeled. Free boundaries (air-solution interface), immersed objects and translating electrodes can be accommodated. Agitation effects, including bubble-induced convection (‘air-sparging’) are included. The flow is superimposed on the configuration used for the electrochemical analysis, with the user specifying the flow input and output. Provides a complete fluid-flow modeling at a fraction of the cost of similar computational fluid-mechanics software.

 

 
Flow pattern within a cell modeled by Cell-Design’s ‘fluid-flow’ module. Flow entrance is at the top left, the exit is on the bottom right.
   

MSW

Micro-scale modeling. Precisely analyzes the current density, deposit thickness, and concentration distributions on and near small-scale features (‘micro-scale’). Conventional analysis breaks down in length scales of the order of the boundary layer thickness (typically below 100 m ), where diffusion becomes more dominant than electric migration. MSW accurately models the deposit distribution on sub-mm and micron-scale features.

REW

Models cells with resistive electrodes (terminal effect). The resistive electrodes may be connected to the power terminals at any position along their length. This option is necessary for modeling current and deposit thickness distribution on long and thin electrodes, on poorly conductive substrates, or on thin metallic seeds on top of non-conductive substrates. Examples include copper metallization of seeded semiconductor wafers, deposition from molten salts, and reel-to-reel- plating of long strips. When the deposit builds-up, the combined use of optional module MBW is recommended in order to correctly simulate the time-dependent variation of the resistive substrate due to deposition. When module MBW is installed, the time dependent variation of the electrode(s) resistivity is automatically incorporated in the computations.

 

 
Current distribution map across a 2-D resistive electrode. Current is fed from the corner through the diagonal conductive ‘ribs’.
   

RDW

Models cells with a resistive (or semi-conductive) deposit. This module is useful for modeling anodizing processes or electropolishing, or for modeling deposition on resistive substrates when the contact is all along the back. The software accounts for the deposit progressive build-up during the deposition process. A duplex type deposit can be accommodated. A thickness limit on the inner layer simulates the ‘barrier’ layer present in numerous anodization processes. Whenever the resistive deposit is thick in comparison to the cell’s dimensions, i.e., changes in the cell geometry during the deposition process must be considered, use of the moving boundaries option MBW is recommended in conjunction with the resistive film module.

RFW

Models cells with a resistive film. The resistive film is present on the electrode prior and during the deposition. The film thickness may vary with position along the electrode, as specified by the user. Applicable for modeling the effects of an oxide film, organic coating or adsorbed additives. Unlike the resistive deposit (see above) the film thickness does not vary with the current density.

RRW

Reel-to-reel (‘strip’) plating . Simulates deposit build-up along strip, coil, sheet, or wire electrodes that are plated while being translated through a plating cell. Displays the deposit thickness variation as function of position along the moving strip. When resistive effects along the strip are significant, the additional use of module REW is recommended. If the cumulative deposit thickness is large compared to the strip thickness, option MBW is also recommended.

 
 
 
Modeling of a strip (reel-to-reel) plater. Right: The potential distribution in the cell. Left: the current distribution along the strip and the anodes.
       

MEW

 

Simultaneous Multi-Electrode Reactions. Provides modeling of alloy co-deposition, gas co-evolution (e.g., hydrogen or oxygen), plating with additives, corrosion, and its cathodic protection. Integrated with CELL-DESIGN’s database.

ACW

AutoCad interface . Allows to directly import the cell geometry from AutoCad drawings (DXF format files). Exports Cell-Design generated geometries back to AutoCad format. Versions of AutoCad through 2002 are supported.

BFW

Battery and fuel cell simulator. Capable of simulating a battery or a fuel cell operation under load that can be varied by the user. In addition, shunt currents, and edge effects are provided.

PRW

Simulation of pulse and periodic reverse deposition and dissolution. The user specifies a sequence of time steps; each with its own applied voltage or current (for any electrode) and the duration or number of the steps. Entire sequences can be repeated. Accounts for deposition and dissolution effects and shows deposit profiles. Will not account for high-frequency dependence of the complex impedance of electrode reactions. (Option MBW required).

AAW

Active electrode area. The module accounts for dispersed active regions, typically small, distributed over the projected electrode area. Examples include small pattern on a printed circuit board (when one is not interested in the detailed distribution over the features), catalytic regions on an electrode, or a porous electrode. Using the module one need not draw the details of the surface and instead specify the ratio of active area to projected area.

MSF

Flow effects on the micro-scale. The module extends the microscale module (MSW) to account for flow. The user first analyzes the flow (with module FFW) on the macro-scale and then imports the relevant data into the micro-scale. The module incorporates a solution for the Nernst-Plank (convection+ diffusion + migration) equation to provide accurate current and deposit thickness distribution over micro-scale features. (Requires option FFW).

PSW

Potentiostat simulation. Just like in a potentiostatic experiment, the module allows the specification of working, counter, and reference electrodes. The potential difference between the working and the reference electrode is set and the current from the working to counter electrode is automatically adjusted to maintain this value. Important for corrosion, selective dissolution and selective deposition studies.

RE2D

Models current, deposit thickness and potential distribution on 2-dimensional resistive electrodes. Analogous to REW, however, allows the specification and analysis of current across the resistive electrode area. User can specify arbitrarily shaped conducting pathways, along the rim or within the electrode area. Useful for modeling electrodes where the current is fed from a conductive frame or contact points along the rim (e.g., in wafer metallization), and battery or fuel-cell electrodes which are fed from a tab.

SDW

Selective dissolution. The module enables to model selective dissolution of a multi-layered deposit. The user can specify which metal or which standard potential range should undergo dissolution. When the substrate metal (which must be more noble) is reached dissolution in that region stops. The progress of dissolution and its distribution can be viewed. (Requires option MBW).

EPW

Electropolishing and Planarization. Simulates the dissolution of a rough, nodular or non-level electrode under various conditions including: (i) resistive film formation (ii) mass transport controlled dissolution through a boundary layer (iii) dissolution under the control of a ‘mediator’ specie diffusing towards the electrode. Useful for simulating polishing and leveling. Requires modules MBW (Moving boundaries), MSW (micro-scale simulations) and RFW (Resistive film). Option FFW (fluid-flow) may prove useful.

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